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  1. We received an email message from Yasuo Takao: It might be a ‘gakuto shutsujin’ (学徒出陣) ceremony. Japanese university students were initially exempt from national conscription, but with Japan’s increasingly desperate position towards the latter part of WWII that ruling was reversed by Imperial Edict in October, 1943. Mobilization for military duty or for work made the students feel that they were responsible for the fate their country and ceremonies similar to the photo were part of their show of patriotism. After Japan’s defeat, feelings of betrayal and disillusionment shaped the postwar student movement.

    Yasuo Takaoさんからメールを頂きました:
    これは「学徒出陣」の儀式かもしれない。日本の大学生は当初、徴兵制が免除されていたが、第二次世界大戦の後半にな李、日本の状況が悪化したため、1943年10月の勅令でその規定が廃止された。 兵役や勤労動員により、国の行く末に責任を持つという意識が芽生え、写真のような儀式が愛国心の表れとして行われた。敗戦後の学生運動は、裏切りと幻滅の感情とともに形成された。

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